Welcome to the Pacific Asia Observatory for Cultural Diversity in Human Development web site. The Observatory aims to facilitate the promotion of Cultural Diversity in all aspects of Human Development – scientific, educational, social, environmental, economic and cultural – in the Pacific Asia region.

Projects 2009

Second International Conference on the Inclusive Museum, Brisbane, Australia

Overall Theme: Enabling Diversity Sustaining Development

The Second International Conference on the Inclusive Museum was held at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 8-11 July 2009.

Plenary speakers included some of the leading thinkers in museum studies and leading practitioners, as well as numerous paper, colloquium and workshop presentations.

For those unable to attend the Conference in person, virtual participation was also available.

Presenters submitted written papers to The International Journal of the Inclusive Museum, a fully refereed academic Journal. Virtual participants also had the option to submit papers for consideration by the Journal. All registered Conference participants received a complimentary online subscription to the Journal.


Public Lecture: Professor Henry Charles Bredekamp, CEO of  Iziko Museums, Cape Town

Challenge and Change: The SA national Gallery of IZiko Mseums Cape Town in post-Apartheid South Africa(PDF)

During the Inclusive Museum Conference in Brisbane Prof Henry Charles Bredekamp presented a public lecture at the State Library Queensland.

South Africa of the 21st century is a nation in the making after an era of almost four centuries of colonialism and apartheid. It is engaged in discussions about re-imagining its non-racial and ethnic identities within the context of post-colonial Africa and a globalising world.

Professor Bredekamp gave an insightful lecture focusing on the importance of historical research and indigenous knowledge systems in bringing about effective changes and understanding of the notion of indigenious people in post-colonial Africa.

Professor Bredekamp is the CEO of Iziko Museums of Cape Town, whose mission is to manage and promote its unique combination of South Africa’s heritage collections, sites and services for the benefit of present and future generations.

Master Class: International Heritage Protection

University of Queensland: 25 – 29 August 2009

Professor O’Keefe, Professor Prott & Professor Galla

Prof Patrick O’Keefe, AM. A specialist in the law and management of cultural heritage since 1970, Dr. O’Keefe is a Member of the Australian Academy of the Humanities and of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies, London. He has written over 200 books, reports and articles on aspects of cultural heritage. Founding Chairman of the Heritage Law Committee of the International Law Association, a post he held the post for 12 years, he is a distinguished Professor teaching and supervising PhD students in the Museum Studies Program at the University of Queensland.

Prof Lyndel Prott, AO, Hon FAHA. An eminent barrister and former Director of the Division of Cultural Heritage, UNESCO, Paris, Dr. Prott has lectured at many universities and institutes around the world and has authored, co-authored or edited over 200 books, reports or articles. She has written in English, French and German and been published in Arabic, Croat, Chinese, Italian, Magyar, Russian and Spanish. She is a distinguished Professor teaching and supervising PhD students in the Museum Studies Program at the University of Queensland. Prof Amareswar Galla. One of the leading museologists and sustainable heritage development specialists in the world and a champion of cultural democracy and Professor of Museum Studies at the University of Queensland

This Five Day Intensive Professional Development Program for people from all professional back grounds, especially international humanitarian law, Human Rights Commissions, Environmental and Heritage Agencies, Museums, Galleries, Libraries and Archives was designed to give participants an introduction to international laws concerning heritage in its various forms, giving them a solid grounding in the obligations concerning heritage established by major international legal instruments such as the UNESCO Conventions, Recommendations and Declarations.

The course also provided participants with knowledge of international rules which affect exchanges, exhibitions, recovery of stolen cultural objects, protection of antiquities, and acquisition and exhibition policies.  Lack of knowledge of this body of legal obligations and the relevant ethical codes could lead to potential losses to museums and breaches of international legal obligations for which a country may be liable. Cultural rights are addressed as an integral part of Human Rights. All the course modules are illustrated with international case studies, including several from the Asia Pacific Region, through the first hand legal knowledge of the course faculty.

Participants studied the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict 1954 and its two Protocols (1954, 1999), the UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 1970, the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects 1995, the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage 2001, UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage 2003 and the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005.  More briefly there will be consideration of the UNESCO Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1972, the 11 UNESCO heritage Recommendations and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 2001. The adoption and implementation of these instruments both in Australia and other countries will be studied as well as their implications for Australian heritage and other cultural workers.